Cancer is the outcome of a complex multifactorial process of cytogenetic and epigenetic changes that affect cell cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair mechanisms and cell differentiation. Cancer cells have the capacity to evade the immune system, to invade tissues and to metastasize. Cancer is treated by surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, each as single treatment modalities or more often in combination. Failure of treatment to cure a patient of cancer may be owing to the fact that radiotherapy and chemotherapy can eradicate transit-amplifying cells which are characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and prolonged survival; but cannot eradicate all cancer stem cells that divide slowly, have a relatively unlimited self-renewal capacity and express anti-apoptotic genes; and also owing to the fact that surgery cannot always eliminate occult fields of pre-cancerization.
|Number of pages||3|
|Journal||SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2010|