A systematic review of rotavirus strain diversity in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan

Melody G. Miles, Kristen D.C. Lewis, Gagandeep Kang, Umesh D. Parashar, A. Duncan Steele*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Of the estimated half-million deaths from rotavirus globally each year, approximately one-third (N= 160,000 deaths) occur in the Indian subcontinent (defined as India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan). Two commercial vaccines are available for use and recommended by WHO, although the prohibitive vaccine price has limited their introduction into routine childhood immunization programs. New rotavirus vaccines are in late clinical development, including two advanced candidates in India. As significant shifts in rotavirus strain diversity have occurred in the past three decades and questions remain regarding whether strain replacement may occur following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, it is important to understand the temporal and regional strain diversity profile before vaccine introduction. We reviewed 33 peer-reviewed manuscripts from the Indian subcontinent and found that the most common G-types (G1-4) and P-types (P[4] and P[8]) globally accounted for three-fourths of all strains in the subcontinent. However, strains varied by region, and temporal analysis showed the decline of G3 and G4 in recent years and the emergence of G9 and G12. Our findings underscore the large diversity of rotavirus strains in the Indian subcontinent and highlight the need to conduct surveillance on a regional scale to better understand strain diversity before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)A131-A139
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Bangladesh
  • Genotype
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Rotavirus
  • Serotype
  • VP4
  • VP7


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