A Systematic Review on Cardiometabolic Risks and Perinatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women Living with HIV in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

Perpetua Modjadji*, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Engelbert A. Nonterah, Sogolo Lucky Lebelo, Zandile June Rose Mchiza, Sphiwe Madiba, Andre Pascal Kengne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have been shown to cause metabolic changes in people living with HIV (PLWH), predisposing them to cardiometabolic disease (CVMD). However, such evidence is less established in pregnant women living with HIV (pWLWH) on ART. Pregnancy-induced cardiometabolic risks (CMR) can predispose to unfavourable pregnancy outcomes and further persist in the postpartum period, resolve, and recur in subsequent pregnancies, or emerge as newly diagnosed chronic diseases of ageing. Therefore, this systematic review aimed at synthesizing evidence on CMR and perinatal outcomes among pWLWH in the era of ART. We considered prospective and retrospective cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, and interventional studies published in English. Specific keywords were used to conduct a thorough literature search on PubMed-Medline and Scopus following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guideline. Two investigators independently screened the search outputs and reviewed full texts of potentially eligible articles. Data extraction was conducted by one investigator and verified by the second investigator. Thirty-one relevant studies conducted on 20,904 pWLWH on ART across Africa, Asia, Europe, and America were included. Studies demonstrate inconclusive findings, especially on perinatal outcomes, but significant risks of gestational hypertension and dyslipidemia were reported in pWLWH on ART compared to the control group. Therefore, future studies should focus more on these perinatal outcomes, and their impact on postpartum maternal health and growth trajectories of uninfected infants born from pWLWH who are either on ART or ART-naïve in comparison to infants born of HIV-negative mothers over the life course, especially in HIV-burdened African countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1441
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • cardiometabolic risks
  • perinatal outcomes
  • pregnant women


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