An andrographolide from helichrysum caespitium (Dc.) sond. ex harv., (asteraceae) and its antimicrobial, antiquorum sensing, and antibiofilm potentials

Kokoette Bassey*, Patience Mamabolo, Sekelwa Cosa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Helichrysum caespititium (DC.) Sond. Ex Harv., (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant indigenous to South Africa. Its non-polar extracts exhibit significant antimicrobial and, in particular, antigonorrheal activity. This study aimed at isolating and purifying the active antigonorrheal compound from its chloroform extract and validating its inhibition potential on quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. Phytochemical investigation of aerial parts of H. caespititium afforded a diterpene lactone (CF6). The effect of CF6 on violacein production and biofilm formation was studied using in vitro quantitative violacein inhibition (Chromobacterium violaceum) and biofilm formation (Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The structure of CF6 was characterized using FTIR, NMR, and UPLC-MS data accordingly, as 10-methyl-8-(propan-17-ylidene)naphthalen-9-yl)-11-vinyl-14-hydroxyfuran-16-one. The susceptibility testing of the pathogens against CF6 revealed Neisseria gonorrhoeae was noticeably susceptible with a MIC value of 60 µg/mL, while Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus showed MIC of 125 µg/mL. All gram-negative pathogens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inhibited at 250 µg/mL. CF6 also inhibited the production of violacein by 51.88% at 250 µg/mL and prevented cell attachment by 40.76–81.18%, with N. gonorrhoeae being highly prohibited from forming biofilm. In conclusion, 10-methyl-8-(propan-17-ylidene)naphthalen-9-yl)-11-vinyl-14-hydroxyfuran-16-one is the first of its kind to be isolated from the non-polar (chloroform) extract of South African Helichrysum caespititium with antigonorrheal, antimicrobial, antiquorum sensing, and antibiofilm properties. The compound may serve as a drug candidate against MDR pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1224
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Andrographolide
  • Antibiofilm
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antiquorum sensing
  • Helichrysum caespititum
  • Multidrug resistance


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