Analyses of HIV-1 integrase gene sequences among treatment-naive patients in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Tennison Onoriode Digban*, Benson Chucks Iweriebor, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Uchechuwku Nwodo, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Drug resistance has been recognized in all available therapeutic class of medications for the management of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients. This makes the continuous study of HIV drug resistance and new treatment options pertinent to patients and researchers globally. The aim of this study is to analyze the complete HIV-1 integrase gene for the possible occurrence of resistance mutations or polymorphisms. We performed genetic analyses on 48 treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients using nested polymerase chain reaction. Integrase drug-related resistance mutation (DRMs) analysis was performed on all generated sequences according to Stanford HIV drug interpretation program and the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines while phylogenetic analysis was inferred using MEGA 6. The study revealed no major resistance-associated mutation. However, E157Q (2.1%), L74M/I (4.2%), and P142T (2.1%) were the observed accessory and polymorphic mutations. Naturally occurring polymorphism observed were E11D, K14R, D25E, V31I, M50I, V72I, P90T, F100Y, L101I, T124A, T125A, K136Q, D167E, V201I, L234I, A265V, A269K, D278A, and S283G. Phylogenetic analysis delineated all the sequences as HIV-1 subtype C. The study revealed the absence of major integrase inhibitors associated resistance mutations in a setting where integrase inhibitor is administered as salvage therapy in patients developing resistance to first and second-line antiretroviral treatment. However minor and natural polymorphisms were observed and thus may influence the outcome of each treatment regimen. However, additional studies are required to precisely evaluate the impact of these mutations on integrase inhibitors in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1165-1172
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • RNA extraction
  • Research and Analysis Methods
  • antiviral agents
  • infection
  • integrase inhibitors
  • resistance


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