Thirty-six of 37 rotavirus strains recovered from the diarrheal stools of 166 children <3 years of age in Burkina Faso were characterized at both the antigenic and molecular levels. The rotavirus strains were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; 30 displayed predominantly short electropherotype patterns, and 6 had a long RNA pattern. The strains were subgrouped by monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for VP6 and were typed as subgroup I (29 of 30 short rotavirus strains) and subgroup II (5 of 6 long strains). The VP7 serotyping and genotyping showed that all 6 viruses with long electropherotype patterns were G1. The short strains were determined to be VP7 serotype G2 by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 27 strains and nucleic acid sequencing of selected strains, although only 1 reacted with the G2-specific monoclonal antibodies. Finally, the short patterns were shown by the PCR genotyping method to be VP4 genotype P, and the long patterns were shown to be P. The predominant strain found in Burkina Faso in this small study was an unusual G2P strain that showed a short RNA electropherotype and VP6 subgroup I specificity and failed to react with a panel of G2-specific monoclonal antibodies.