Assessing the Impact of Roasting Temperatures on Biochemical and Sensory Quality of Macadamia Nuts (Macadamia integrifolia)

Noluthando Noxolo Aruwajoye, Nana Millicent Duduzile Buthelezi, Asanda Mditshwa, Samson Zeray Tesfay*, Lembe Samukelo Magwaza

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Depending on the temperature regime used during roasting, the biochemical and sensory characteristics of macadamia nuts can change. ‘A4′ and ‘Beaumont’ were used as model cultivars to examine how roasting temperatures affected the chemical and sensory quality of macadamia nuts. Using a hot air oven dryer, macadamia kernels were roasted at 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 °C for 15 min. The quantity of phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants in kernels roasted at 50, 75, and 100 °C was significant (p < 0.001); however, these kernels also had high levels of moisture content, oxidation-sensitive unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and peroxide value (PV), and poor sensory quality. Low moisture content, flavonoids, phenols, antioxidants, fatty acid (FA) compositions, high PV, and poor sensory quality—i.e., excessive browning, an exceptionally crunchy texture, and a bitter flavor—were all characteristics of kernels roasted at 150 °C. With a perfect crispy texture, a rich brown color, and a strong nutty flavor, kernels roasted at 125 °C had lower PV; higher oxidation-resistant UFA compositions; considerable concentrations of flavonoids, phenols, and antioxidants; and good sensory quality. Therefore, ‘A4′ and ‘Beaumont’ kernels could be roasted at 125 °C for use in the industry to improve kernel quality and palatability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2116
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • antioxidants activity
  • fatty acids
  • flavonoids
  • peroxide value
  • phenols
  • sensory evaluation


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