Candida auris was first detected at a university-affiliated hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009. We used whole-genome sequencing to describe the molecular epidemiology of C. auris in the same hospital during 2016-2020; the neonatal unit had a persistent outbreak beginning in June 2019. Of 287 cases with culture-confirmed C. auris infection identified through laboratory surveillance, 207 (72%) had viable isolates and 188 (66%) were processed for whole-genome sequencing. Clade III (118/188, 63%) and IV (70/188, 37%) isolates co-circulated in the hospital. All 181/188 isolates that had a fluconazole MIC >32 µg/mL had ERG11 mutations; clade III isolates had VF125AL substitutions, and clade IV isolates had K177R/N335S/E343D substitutions. Dominated by clade III, the neonatal unit outbreak accounted for 32% (91/287) of all cases during the study period. The outbreak may have originated through transmission from infected or colonized patients, colonized healthcare workers, or contaminated equipment/environment.