Challenges and innovations brought about by the covid-19 pandemic regarding medical and pharmacy education especially in africa and implications for the future

Ayukafangha Etando, Adefolarin A. Amu, Mainul Haque, Natalie Schellack, Amanj Kurdi, Alian A. Alrasheedy, Angela Timoney, Julius C. Mwita, Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera, Okwen Patrick, Loveline Lum Niba, Baffour Boaten Boahen-Boaten, Felicity Besong Tabi, Olufunke Y. Amu, Joseph Acolatse, Robert Incoom, Israel Abebrese Sefah, Anastasia Nkatha Guantai, Sylvia Opanga, Ibrahim ChikoweFelix Khuluza, Dan Kibuule, Francis Kalemeera, Ester Hango, Jennie Lates, Joseph Fadare, Olayinka O. Ogunleye, Zikria Saleem, Frasia Oosthuizen, Werner Cordier, Moliehi Matlala, Johanna C. Meyer, Gustav Schellack, Amos Massele, Oliver Ombeva Malande, Aubrey Chichonyi Kalungia, James Sichone, Sekelani S. Banda, Trust Zaranyika, Stephen Campbell, Brian Godman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Multiple measures introduced early to restrict COVID-19 have dramatically impacted the teaching of medical and pharmacy students, exacerbated by the lack of infrastructure and experience with e-learning at the start of the pandemic. In addition, the costs and reliability of the Internet across Africa pose challenges alongside undertaking clinical teaching and practical programmes. Consequently, there is a need to understand the many challenges and how these were addressed, given increasingly complex patients, to provide future direction. Method: An exploratory study was conducted among senior-level medical and pharmacy educators across Africa, addressing four key questions, including the challenges resulting from the pandemic and how these were dealt with. Results: Staff and student members faced multiple challenges initially, including adapting to online learning. In addition, concerns with the lack of equipment (especially among disadvantaged students), the costs of Internet bundles, and how to conduct practicals and clinical teaching. Multiple activities were undertaken to address these challenges. These included training sessions, developing innovative approaches to teaching, and seeking ways to reduce Internet costs. Robust approaches to practicals, clinical teaching, and assessments have been developed. Conclusions: Appreciable difficulties to teaching arising from the pandemic are being addressed across Africa. Research is ongoing to improve education and assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1722
JournalHealthcare (Switzerland)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Africa
  • COVID-19
  • Cross country learning
  • E-learning
  • Hybrid approaches
  • Internet platforms
  • Medical education
  • Mental health
  • Pharmacy education


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