Characterisation of protease resistance mutations in a South African paediatric cohort with virological failure, 2011 - 2017

Z. Makatini*, S. Mda, O. Towobola, H. Mthiyane, P. Miles, J. T. Blackard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background. Advances in HIV management have improved treatment outcomes in the HIV-infected population. However, these advances have not been without multifaceted challenges. In sub-Saharan Africa, their impact is reflected in the increased emergence of HIV drug resistance mutations. With the rise in exposure of children to protease inhibitors (PIs), the possibility of increasing PI resistance remains a concern. Objectives. To describe a group of antiretroviral-experienced children with PI drug resistance mutations after failure on first- or second-line regimens in a public sector setting in South Africa. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 22 children perinatally infected with HIV who had HIV genotyping conducted between January 2011 and December 2017. Results. Of the 236 children who had HIV genotyping conducted, 22 (9.3%) had evidence of HIV PI resistance mutations. Twenty-one of the 22 children (95.5%) had major mutations in the protease region of the HIV genome. Of these children, 66.7% (14/21) had loss of response to both boosted lopinavir and atazanavir, with boosted darunavir remaining susceptible in only 12 (57.1%). The most frequent major PI mutations were V82A (76.2%), M46I/M46L (76.2%), I54V (62.0%) and L76V (33.3%). Conclusions. We observed a high rate of PI resistance mutations, with a resulting loss of PIs that could be used in construction of third-line regimens. To build on improvements from the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, increased efforts are needed by both health professionals and caregivers to improve adherence measures in children perinatally infected with HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-515
Number of pages5
JournalSouth African Medical Journal
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019


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