Characterisation of the physicochemical qualities of a typical rural-based river: Ecological and public health implications

T. Sibanda, V. N. Chigor, S. Koba, C. L. Obi, A. I. Okoh

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17 Citations (Scopus)


The physicochemical qualities of a typical rural-based river were assessed over a 12-month period from August 2010 to July 2011 spanning the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons. Water samples were collected from six sampling sites along Tyume River and analysed for total nitrogen, orthophosphate, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity. BOD regimes did not differ significantly between seasons and between sampling points and ranged from 0.78 to 2.76 mg/L across seasons and sampling points, while temperature ranged significantly (P < 0.05) between 6 and 28 °C. Turbidity varied significantly (P < 0.05) from 6 to 281 nephelometric turbidity units while TDS (range 24-209 ppm) and conductivity (range 47.6-408 mg/L) also varied significantly (P < 0.05) across sampling points with a remarkable similarity in their trends. Orthophosphate concentrations varied from 0.06 to 2.72 mg/L across seasons and sampling points. Negative correlations were noted between temperature and the nutrients, DO and temperature (r = -0.56), and TDS and DO (r = -0.33). Positive correlations were noted between TDS and temperature (r = 0.41), EC and temperature (r = 0.15), and DO and pH (r = 0.55). All nutrients were positively correlated to each other. Most measured parameters were within prescribed safety guidelines. However, the general trend was that water quality tended to deteriorate as the river flows through settlements, moreso in rainy seasons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1771-1780
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Environment
  • Parameters
  • Pollution
  • Sampling
  • Seasons


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