In a previous study, rotavirus infection was determined in young children at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka. In this study, selected rotavirus strains were characterized by monoclonal antibody assay to the VP6 subgroup antigen present and by hybridization analysis of the VP7 and VP4 genes carried by the virus. The majority of the strains were characterized as a VP6 subgroup II, VP7 serotype G1 strain with a long electropherotype and bearing the VP4 P8 genotype. A further four minor rotavirus strains with a long RNA electropherotype and subgroup II antigen were also observed to be circulating bearing G1 or G4 VP7 genes and the VP4 P8 genotype. Two electrophoretic strains with differing short RNA electropherotypes and subgroup I antigenicity were also present. These strains hybridized to the VP7 type G2 and VP4 P4 genotype probes.