Comparative Study of Abiotic Stress Factors on GC-MS-Detected Phytoconstituents of Aloe greatheadii var: Davyana Using Heat Map and Hierarchical Clustering Dendrogram

Denga Nthai, Vuyisile Samuel Thibane, Sechene Stanley Gololo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aloe greatheadii var. davyana or spotted aloe is indigenous to South Africa and widely distributed in the northern provinces. The plant has a vast ethnopharmacological application which is mostly attributed to its phytochemical content. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of abiotic stress factors on the plant's phytochemical content. The phytochemical content of A. greatheadii hexane extracts from four different provinces (Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, and North West), harvested from the wild at varied altitudes, rainfall patterns, and soil types, was examined using gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS). The phytochemical content of hexane extracts from the four South African provinces was analysed using heat map analysis and hierarchical clustering dendrogram. The phytochemical content of A. greatheadii hexane extracts was composed of fatty acids, alkanes, benzene, carboxylic acids, ketones, phytosterols, and vitamins. Eicosane, henicosane, and [(2S)-2-[(2R)-4-hexadecanoyloxy-3-hydroxy-5-oxo-2H-furan-2-yl]-2-hydroxyethyl] hexadecanoate were the only compounds detected in all samples from the four provinces. The concentration levels of 2-(((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)carbonyl) benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol, tritetracontane, and ethyl 13-methyltetradecanoate were closely related and expressed a low clustering distance amongst the samples. Variations in soil pH, soil type, and rainfall patterns were detected and differed in the four provinces. The different abiotic stress factors affected the biochemical pathways for the different compounds, with conditions in Gauteng being less favourable for many of the compounds detected. Abiotic stress factors have shown to influence phytochemical biochemical pathways and quantity. Aloe greatheadii plants can be selected based on location seemingly due to the variations that persist in their phytochemical content.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5365024
JournalBiochemistry Research International
Volume2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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