Ethnopharmacological relevance: The dicotyledonous plant Piptadeniastrum africanum (hook.f.) Brennan (Fabaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat various human complaints including bronchitis, coughing, urino-genital ailments, meningitis, abdominal pain, treatment of wounds, malaria and gastrointestinal ailments, and is used as a purgative and worm expeller. Aim of the study: The present study describes the phytochemical investigation and the determination of the antimicrobial, antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of crude extract, fractions and compounds extracted from Piptadeniastrum africanum roots. Materials and methods: Isolated compounds were obtained using several chromatographic techniques. The structures of all compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (1D and 2D NMR) and by comparing their NMR data with those found in literature. In vitro antimicrobial activity of samples was evaluated using the microdilution method on bacterial (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal (Candida krusei) strains, while in vitro cell-growth inhibition activities were assessed against two parasites (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7). The cytotoxicity properties of samples were assayed against HeLa human cervical carcinoma. Results: Five compounds were isolated and identified as: tricosanol 1, 5α-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-β-ol 2, betulinic acid 3, oleanolic acid 4 and piptadenamide 5. This is the first report of the isolation of these five compounds from the roots of P. africanum. The (Hex:EtOAc 50:50) fraction exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against P. mirabilis (MIC 250 μg/mL), while the other fractions and isolated compounds had weak antimicrobial activities. Only the EtOAc fraction presented a moderate antimalarial activity with an IC50 of 16.5 μg/mL. The MeOH crude extract and three fractions (Hexane, Hexane-EtOAc 25% and EtOAc-MeOH 25%) exhibited significant trypanocidal activity with IC50 values of 3.0, 37.5, 3.8 and 9.5 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: These results demonstrated a scientific rational of the traditional uses of P. africanum and indicate that this plant should be further investigated to identify some of the chemical components that exhibited the activities reported in this study and therefore may constitute new lead candidates in parasiticidal drug discovery.
- Phytochemical analysis
- Piptadeniastrum africanum