Confirmatory Analysis of Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Milk and Infant Formula Using UHPLC-MS/MS

Ovokeroye A. Abafe, Linda R. Macheka, Joshua O. Olowoyo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the sensitive determination and unambiguous confirmation of residues of per and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in breastmilk, retail milk and infant formulas following two sample preparation methods. Sample pre-treatment was carried out by a simplified QuEChERS method without requiring dSPE or any further clean-up. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of Commission Decision 657/2002/EC with slight modifications. The method displayed good linearity with R2 ranging from 0.9843-0.9998 for all target PFAS. The recovery and within-laboratory reproducibility of the method (n = 63) were in the range 60-121% and 5-28%, respectively. The decision limit, detection capability and limit of quantitation ranged from 30-60 ng kg-1 to 40-100 ng kg-1 and 5-50 ng kg-1, respectively. Acceptable matrix effect values in the range -45-29% were obtained with uncertainty of measurement lower than 25% for all target PFAS. The method displays its suitability for the sensitive and high-throughput confirmatory analysis of C4-C14 PFAS in breastmilk, dairy milk and infant formulas.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2021


  • QuEChERS
  • breastmilk
  • confirmatory
  • infant formula
  • liquid–liquid extraction
  • retail milk


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