Determination of furanic compounds in Mopane worms, corn, and peanuts using headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector

Nonkululeko S. Masite, Somandla Ncube, Fanyana M. Mtunzi, Lawrence M. Madikizela, Vusumzi E. Pakade*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A headspace-solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (HS-SPME-GC/FID) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of furan, 2-methylfuran and 2-furaldehyde in thermally processed Mopane worms, corn, and peanuts. The optimal HS-SPME conditions with polydimethylsiloxane/carboxen/divinylbenzene (PDMS/CAR/DVB) fiber were 30 °C, 40 min and 600 rpm stirring speed. The recoveries, detection and quantification limits for the analytes in food samples were 67–106%, 0.54–3.5 µg kg−1, and 1.8–12 µg kg−1, respectively. These results showed that the developed method was accurate, reproducible, and sensitive for the determination of furan, 2-methylfuran and 2-furaldehyde in complex food matrices with limited interference from other components. The optimised analytical method was applied for monitoring the presence of the furanic compounds in heat-processed South African foods. Although 2-furaldehyde was not detected in food samples, the maximum concentrations of 24 and 95 µg kg−1 were found for furan and 2-methylfuran, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130944
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume369
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Furan
  • GC/FID
  • HS-SPME
  • Mopane worms
  • Thermally processed food

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