The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of mixed acid concentration on the morphology, crystallinity and thermal properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Acid hydrolysis using mixture of sulphuric (H2SO4) acid and perchloric (HClO4) acid was used to extract CNCs from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The properties of the raw SCB, extracted cellulose, 45% H2SO4 hydrolysed CNCs, 45% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs, 55% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs and 65% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs were analysed using Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The crystallinity of SCB was significantly increased after bleaching and acid hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis using 55% H2SO4/HClO4 showed the highest crystallinity. The TGA results showed significant increase in thermal stability of 55% H2SO4/HClO4. The lowest thermal stability was observed with 45% H2SO4 hydrolysed CNCs. The order of thermal stability was raw SCB < extracted cellulose < 45% H2SO4 hydrolysed CNCs < 65% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs < 45% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs < 55% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs. The SEM results showed fibre breakage for 65% H2SO4/HClO4 hydrolysed CNCs. The fibre breakage seemed to be acid concentration dependent.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|
- Sugarcane bagasse
- perchloric acid
- sulphuric acid