Background and aims: The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and early diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in an appreciable reduction in morbidity and mortality among people infected with HIV. However, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing ART regimens are associated with a reduction in creatinine clearance (CrCl). No evaluation has been conducted in Namibia to date on the relationship between TDF-containing ART and CrCl among patients with moderate to severe reductions in CrCl to guide future practice. We aimed to address this.Methodology: Retrospective longitudinal study between January 2008 to December 2016 evaluating CrCl in patients with a baseline CrCl <60ml/min who were receiving TDF-containing ART in a leading hospital in Namibia. We identified patients who had experienced an improvement in CrCl and compared their characteristics with those whose CrCl did not improve. We assessed factors for an association with improvement in CrCl using binary logistic regression.Results: 389 patients were included, the majority were female (n = 294). Female vs. male assessments showed no difference in age (p = 0.340), weight (p = 0.920), number who experienced an improvement (105 vs 39, p = 0.349), or absence of improvement (189 vs. 56, p = 0.349). The improvement group (male and female) had a lower baseline CrCl (45.9 vs. 55.0, p < 0.001). The follow-up CrCl for the improvement and no improvement groups were 72.6 and 55.9 respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of improvement were: 0.905 (0.871-0.940, p < 0.001) for each unit rise in the baseline CrCl, and 0.904(0.880-0.923) for each year of follow-up.Conclusion: More improvement than decline in CrCl was observed. Improvement occurred more in patients with lower baseline CrCl, and occurred in the early period of ART with reduced odds of experiencing this with time. Our findings indicate that TDF may be used in patients with a low baseline CrCl.
- creatinine clearance
- kidney function