Efficacy of Topical Tranexamic Acid (Cyclokapron) in “Wet” Field Infiltration with Dilute Local Anaesthetic Solutions in Plastic Surgery

M. Fayman*, A. Beeton, E. Potgieter, Robert Ndou, Pedzisai Mazengenya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Surgical bleeding may lead to the need for blood transfusion and minimizing blood loss has been a basic principle followed by surgeons for generations. Antifibrinolytic agents are widely used to reduce perioperative haemorrhage. The present study sought to assess the efficacy of directly infiltrated tranexamic acid in ameliorating bruising in participants undergoing cosmetic plastic surgery (liposuction). Materials and Methods: The study employed a blinded, prospective, randomized, case control design. Thirty-three patients were studied. Tranexamic acid free infiltration tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) was infiltrated to one flank of patients undergoing liposuction of flanks. The other flank was infiltrated with the same tumescent solution (saline, bupivacaine lignocaine and adrenalin) mixed with tranexamic acid (0.1%). Bruises were photographed one and seven days after surgery and measured for size. The surface area of the bruises was calculated using ImageJ software. We compared the bruised surface are between the tranexamic acid infiltrated flank and non-tranexamic acid infiltrated flank in the same patient. The model employed involved measuring the bruises on each flank of the same patient, with surgery by a single surgeon using the same infiltration and surgical techniques for both sides. The only variable was the difference in tranexamic acid concentration between study and control flanks. Results: We found that use of tranexamic acid consistently resulted in a smaller bruise area on days one and seven after liposuction of flanks. Results were statistically significant. Conclusions: This is the first study examining addition of tranexamic acid to a tumescent infiltration solution—to produce a predictable local concentration of tranexamic acid—in order to maximize surgical site effect and minimize systemic effect. The authors recommend incorporation of tranexamic acid as a routine component along with adrenaline and local anaesthetics in tumescent field infiltration solution 10–15 min before commencement of the cosmetic surgery. Level of Evidence II: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-339
Number of pages8
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Antifibrinolytic agents
  • Bruise area
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Liposuction
  • Tranexamic acid


Dive into the research topics of 'Efficacy of Topical Tranexamic Acid (Cyclokapron) in “Wet” Field Infiltration with Dilute Local Anaesthetic Solutions in Plastic Surgery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this