Emerging and reemerging bacterial pathogens of humans in environmental and hospital settings

Ubani Esther K. Fono-Tamo*, Martina Oyedi Chukwu, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, C. L. Obi, John Barr Dewar, Akebe Luther King Abia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter reviews emerging and reemerging bacterial pathogens in environmental and hospital settings and that are either endemic, epidemic, or have caused sporadic outbreaks or have shown increased prevalence in clinical cases in Africa in recent times. In Africa, bacterial pathogens like Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Plesiomonas shigelloides have become critical clinical pathogens on the watch list for their increased incidence in clinical cases, ubiquity in the environment, and heightened exposure risk. Increased and consistent antibiotic resistance observed with Mycobacterium tuberculosis hampers treatment options and promotes the circulation of this pathogen, making it a reemerging pathogen of concern. Vibrio cholerae O1, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitidis are endemic in Africa and have historically been responsible for severe health concerns in African countries, despite numerous interventions initiated to control their increase and spread. They cause severe health and economic burdens in many African countries, influenced by socioeconomic, environmental/ecological, pathogen (evolution and the development of drug resistance), and human factors. In Africa, prevention and control strategies for these emerging pathogens are hampered by inequalities in necessary infrastructure (waste disposal and water supply), healthcare provision, environmental conditions, hygiene practices, sanitary conditions, and lack of epidemiological data due to inadequate surveillance and investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCurrent Microbiological Research in Africa
Subtitle of host publicationSelected Applications for Sustainable Environmental Management
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages39
ISBN (Electronic)9783030352967
ISBN (Print)9783030352950
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Control measures
  • Emerging pathogens
  • Epidemics
  • Outbreaks
  • Reemerging pathogens
  • Resistance


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