Exploring Knowledge of Antibiotic Use, Resistance, and Stewardship Programs among Pharmacy Technicians Serving in Ambulatory Care Settings in Pakistan and the Implications

Zia Ul Mustafa*, Marriam Nazir, Hafiza Kiran Majeed, Muhammad Salman, Khezar Hayat, Amer Hayat Khan, Johanna C. Meyer, Brian Godman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a leading global health threat, increasing morbidity, mortality, and costs, with excessive and irrational use of antimicrobials contributing to the development of AMR. Consequently, the aims of this study were to evaluate the understanding of antibiotic use, AMR, and antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) among pharmacy technicians serving in ambulatory healthcare settings in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pharmacy technicians serving in 144 ambulatory care settings in seven districts of Punjab province using a validated questionnaire. Overall, 376 technicians completed the survey (85.8% response rate). The majority were men (89.1%), aged 25–35 years (45.1%), serving in emergency departments (43.9%) and filling 31–60 prescriptions per day (37.5%). Most (79.5%) knew that antibiotics were one of the most frequently prescribed drug classes, while 59.8% believed antibiotics for common colds did not speed up recovery. Inadequate duration (59.6%) and inadequate dosages (57.7%) of antibiotic therapy were reported as the leading causes of AMR. Terms including ‘superbugs’, ‘multidrug resistance’, and ‘extensively drug resistance’ were known to 42.0%, 25.3%, and 20.7% of participants, respectively; however, <10% knew about ASPs, including their core elements and purpose. Our study revealed that pharmacy technicians have adequate awareness of antibiotic use but are currently unaware of AMR and ASPs, which is a concern.

Original languageEnglish
Article number921
JournalAntibiotics
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Pakistan
  • ambulatory healthcare
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship programs
  • antimicrobials
  • awareness
  • pharmacy technicians

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Exploring Knowledge of Antibiotic Use, Resistance, and Stewardship Programs among Pharmacy Technicians Serving in Ambulatory Care Settings in Pakistan and the Implications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this