The rotavirus outer capsid proteins elicit the production of neutralizing antibodies and are known to play a role in inducing resistance to disease. In this study, cDNA probes directed at the six most common human rotavirus VP7 serotypes (G1 to G4, G8, and G9) and five human rotavirus VP4 genotypes (P4, P6, P8, P9, and P10) were utilized. Hybridization analysis of 572 human rotavirus strains collected from five regions in South Africa was performed to determine the distribution of the VP7 serotypes and VP4 genotypes in nature. VP7 serotype G1 was identified most frequently, occurring in 51% of the rotavirus strains tested. VP7 serotypes G2 and G4 occurred in similar numbers, although their distribution varied regionally. Few serotype G3 strains and no G8 or G9 strains were identified. The P8 VP4 genotype occurred must frequently overall (66%), and the P4 genotype was detected next most frequently. The P6 genotype was identified in 28 symptomatically infected neonates and in 8 symptomatic infants. Few P9 strains were identified. The potential for reassortment events was demonstrated by dual infections with different viruses.