Background. Despite numerous interventions to prevent neonatal heat loss, preventing hypothermia after delivery continues to be a concern in developing countries. Objective. To determine the prevalence of hypothermia and its risk factors among preterm very-low-birthweight infants admitted to the neonatal care unit (NCU) of a tertiary hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Method. A retrospective study (January-July 2015) was undertaken to analyse data from the medical records of infants admitted to the NCU of Mankweng Hospital. Hypothermia at admission was the major outcome and was defined as an axillary body temperature <36.5°C. Maternal data collected were age, parity, use of antenatal corticosteroids, and mode of delivery, while neonatal data included sex, birthweight, gestational age, Apgar score, resuscitation at delivery, admission and discharge dates, length of stay, morbidity, interventions and infant outcomes. Results. A total of 252 neonate-and-mother pairs were included in the study, with hypothermia on admission being present in 35% of infants. Factors associated with hypothermia on admission include being born in the winter season, resuscitation at delivery, use of synchronised inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP), respiratory distress syndrome and mortality. Conclusion. In our study, hypothermia on admission occurs relatively frequently, and is associated with resuscitation in the delivery room, respiratory distress syndrome, use of SiPAP, winter season and neonatal mortality. Therefore maintaining infant temperature in the desired range of 36.5°C to 37.5°C after delivery, during transport and on NCU admission might improve neonatal outcomes.