Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward infection prevention and control among undergraduate pharmacy students in Zambia: Findings and implications

Steward Mudenda, Joseph Chizimu, Billy Chabalenge, Maisa Kasanga, Scott Kaba Matafwali, Victor Daka, Kaunda Yamba, Margret Mulomba, Webrod Mufwambi, Patricia Katowa-Mukwato, Brian Godman

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Background: Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are critical in preventing the risk of acquiring and transmitting nosocomial infections. In Zambia, there is little information concerning IPC practices among pharmacy students who are exposed to potentially infectious areas both in public and private healthcare settings. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices of undergraduate pharmacy students toward infection prevention and control at the University of Zambia. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 290 undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Zambia using a structured questionnaire from August 2022 to October 2022. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0, and statistical significance was set at a 95% confidence level. Results: Of the 290 participants, 166(57.2%) were female and the majority were aged between 18 and 23 years. Overall, 252(86.9%) had good knowledge, 167(57.6%) had positive attitudes, and 248(85.5%) had good practices toward IPC measures. These results indicate lower attitude scores compared to knowledge and practices. Having good knowledge of IPC was associated with being a Christian by religion compared to other religions (OR = 5.314, 95% CI: 1.141-24.745). There was no association between sociodemographics and attitude and practice concerning IPC. Conclusion: This study found that pharmacy students had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices toward IPC measures. Consequently, more emphasis is needed to improve the student's knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward IPC, especially in areas where gaps were identified. Additionally, there is a need to improve curricula on IPC measures in the training of pharmacy programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere154
JournalAntimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023


  • Infection prevention practices
  • Zambia
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • nosocomial infections
  • pharmacy students


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