Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Community Pharmacy Professionals on Poultry Antibiotic Dispensing, Use, and Bacterial Antimicrobial Resistance in Zambia: Implications on Antibiotic Stewardship and WHO AWaRe Classification of Antibiotics

Steward Mudenda*, Moses Mukosha, Brian Godman, Joseph Fadare, Sydney Malama, Musso Munyeme, Christabel Nang’andu Hikaambo, Aubrey Chichonyi Kalungia, Audrey Hamachila, Henson Kainga, Flavien Nsoni Bumbangi, Victor Daka, Ruth Lindizyani Mfune, Geoffrey Mainda, Webrod Mufwambi, Prudence Mpundu, Maisa Kasanga, Shereen Ahmed Mohammed Saad, John Bwalya Muma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Globally, the inappropriate dispensing and use of antibiotics in animals has contributed to the development of bacterial antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In Zambia, there is insufficient information among community pharmacy professionals on antibiotic use (ABU) and AMR in food-producing animals. This study assessed community pharmacy professionals’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding poultry antibiotic dispensing, use, and bacterial AMR in the Lusaka district of Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 178 community pharmacy professionals between February and April 2022 using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Stata version 17. Of the total participants (n = 178), 51.1% (n = 91) were pharmacists. The most dispensed antibiotic was oxytetracycline, a Watch antibiotic, mainly without prescriptions. Good knowledge of ABU and AMR was associated with work experience for more than one year (p = 0.016), while good practices were associated with male gender (p = 0.039) and work experience of more than one year (p = 0.011). The study found moderate knowledge, positive attitudes, and moderate practices of pharmacy professionals on poultry ABU and AMR. There was high dispensing of poultry antibiotics without prescriptions, which calls for strict implementation of antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance programs in poultry production in Zambia to reduce AMR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1210
JournalAntibiotics
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022

Keywords

  • AWaRe classification
  • antibiotic resistance
  • antibiotic use
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • antimicrobial stewardship
  • attitudes
  • knowledge
  • pharmacists
  • poultry
  • practices
  • surveillance

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