Lignocellulosic Biomass Waste-Derived Cellulose Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanomaterials: A Review

Lindokuhle Precious Magagula, Clinton Michael Masemola, Muhammed As’Ad Ballim, Zikhona Nobuntu Tetana, Nosipho Moloto, Ella Cebisa Linganiso*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Rapid population and economic growth, excessive use of fossil fuels, and climate change have contributed to a serious turn towards environmental management and sustainability. The agricultural sector is a big contributor to (lignocellulosic) waste, which accumulates in landfills and ultimately gets burned, polluting the environment. In response to the current climate-change crisis, policymakers and researchers are, respectively, encouraging and seeking ways of creating value-added products from generated waste. Recently, agricultural waste has been regularly appearing in articles communicating the production of a range of carbon and polymeric materials worldwide. The extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from biomass waste partially occupies some of the waste-recycling and management space. Further, the new materials generated from this waste promise to be effective and competitive in emerging markets. This short review summarizes recent work in the area of CNCs and CQDs synthesised from biomass waste. Synthesis methods, properties, and prospective application of these materials are summarized. Current challenges and the benefits of using biomass waste are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4310
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • agricultural waste
  • carbon quantum dots
  • cellulose nanocrystals
  • lignocellulosic biomass


Dive into the research topics of 'Lignocellulosic Biomass Waste-Derived Cellulose Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanomaterials: A Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this