Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been identified in various population groups living in southern and central Africa. Sera from 291 !Kung Bushmen in Bushmanland, Namibia were examined for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 and to HTLV-I. Initial screening for HIV- 1/2 by two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) revealed evidence of past exposure in four individuals. However, no HIV- 1/2 infection could be confirmed by a particle agglutination assay, a recombinant ELISA, or by Western blot for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Indeterminate Western blot profiles (with a p55 for each and either a p25 or p18 band) existed for all four HIV-1-reactive sera. Eight sera were reactive in the HTLV-I ELISA, although only five were positive on a second ELISA. Only three of the five HTLV-I-reactive sera could be confirmed by Western blot.