In this work, the split-step Fourier method for beam propagation is used to investigate the interaction of ultra-short pulses with epsilon-near-zero materials. The propagation of pulses is governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) containing dispersion, gain-bandwidth, self-phase modulation, self-steepening, and absorption parameters. It is found that the intensity profile of the pulse is broadened and the phase of the pulse is shifted by dispersion phenomena. The gain/loss related to the imaginary part of the refractive index causes an increase or decrease in intensity and pulse edge effects. These effects do not favor the steady propagation of the pulse. The self-phase modulation is not noted to appreciably affect the intensity pulse profile. The self-steepening modifies the phase and energy of the pulse during propagation, as well as absorption, which influences the losses by both the linear and nonlinear effects.
- Self–phase modulation