© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015. We evaluated the antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli (n=300) isolated from selected rivers in Osun State, Nigeria. The identities of the E. coli isolates were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antibiotics conventionally used in clinical cases was assessed in vitro by the standardized agar disc-diffusion method. All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and gatilofloxacin. The isolates were variously susceptible to the other antibiotics as follows: ciprofloxacin (96%), kanamycin (95%), neomycin (92%), streptomycin (84%), chloramphenicol (73%), nalidixic acid (66%), nitrofurantoin (64%), gentamycin (63%), doxycycline (58%), cefepime (57%), tetracycline (49%) and cephalothin (42%). Themultiple antibiotic resistance indexing ranged from 0.50 to 0.80 for all the sampling locations and exceeded the threshold value of 0.2, suggesting the origin of the isolates to be of high antimicrobial usage. Our findings signify an increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli towards conventionally used antibiotics necessitating proper surveillance programmes towards the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance determinants in water bodies.