Nano-enabled liposomal mucoadhesive films for enhanced efavirenz buccal drug delivery

Nnamdi Ikemefuna Okafor, Mpho Ngoepe, Xavier Siwe Noundou, Rui Werner Maçedo Krause*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Buccal films (BFs) were prepared using a solvent casting method using the liposomal suspension as the dispersing medium. Optimization of some physical properties of the films containing different amounts of polymers was done using digital Vernier calliper and digital weighing balance. The physiochemical properties of the best optimized properties were characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Permeation study of the BFs composed of Carbopol (CP) alone and CP to Pluronic 127 (PF127) demonstrated better bio-adhesive properties than the films made of other polymers such as HPMC (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose) and HPMC-PF127. These CP based BFs (without and with PF127) exhibited good film thickness 0.88 ± 0.10 and 0.76 ± 0.14 mm, with weight uniformity 68.22 ± 1.04 and 86.28 ± 2.16 mg, satisfactory flexibility values 258 and 321, and slightly acidic pH 6.43 ± 0.76 and 6.32 ± 0.01. The swelling percentage was found to be 50% for CP and 78% for CP-PF127. The cumulative amount of drug that permeated through the buccal epithelium after 24 h was about 66% from CP and 75% from CP-PF127.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101312
JournalJournal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Buccal films
  • Buccal mucosa
  • Delivery system
  • Efavirenz solubility
  • Liposomes


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