Optical Bullets and Their Modulational Instability Analysis

Khalil S. Al-Ghafri*, Edamana V. Krishnan, Salam Khan, Anjan Biswas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The current work is devoted to investigating the multidimensional solitons known as optical bullets in optical fiber media. The governing model is a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger system (3D-NLSS). The study is based on deriving the traveling wave reduction from the 3D-NLSS that constructs an elliptic-like equation. The exact solutions of the latter equation are extracted with the aid of two analytic approaches, the projective Riccati equations and the Bernoulli differential equation. Upon applying both methods, a plethora of assorted solutions for the 3D-NLSS are created, which describe mixed optical solitons having the profiles of bright, dark, and singular solitons. Additionally, the employed techniques provide several kinds of periodic wave solutions. The physical structures of some of the derived solutions are depicted to interpret the nature of the medium characterized by the 3D-NLSS. In addition, the modulation instability of the discussed model is examined by making use of the linear stability analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9221
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger system
  • Bernoulli sub-equation function method
  • modulation instability
  • optical bullets
  • projective Riccati equations method


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