Point prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use: a systematic review and the implications

Zikria Saleem*, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Brian Godman, Ann Versporten, Furqan Khurshid Hashmi, Hamid Saeed, Fahad Saleem, Muhammad Salman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: In view of increasing concerns with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the World Health Organization (WHO) instituted a Global Action Plan (GAP) to address this. Area covered: One of the strategies to achieve the goals of GAP is to conduct regular surveillance of antimicrobial use through point prevalence surveys (PPS). In this review, PubMed, EBSCO, Proquest, Cinahl, and Scopus were searched for PPS of antimicrobial use published in English between January 2000 and December 2019. After systematic database screening of 2,893 articles, 60 PPS met the inclusion criteria and consequently were incorporated in this systematic review. Expert opinion: This review highlighted that most of the PPS were conducted in upper-middle and high-income countries. Prevalence of antimicrobial use was significantly higher in non-European hospitals compared with European hospitals. The domination of third-generation cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones use across all the regions suggests substantial use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials across countries. Among all identified regions around the world, India was the region where the highest use of antimicrobials was observed. Although PPS is a useful tool to assess the pattern of antimicrobial use and provides a robust baseline; however, a standardized surveillance method is needed. In order to optimize antimicrobial use, more efforts are required to improve antimicrobial use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)897-910
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Point prevalence survey
  • antimicrobial prescribing
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • guidelines
  • review


Dive into the research topics of 'Point prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use: a systematic review and the implications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this