Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Diabetes Mellitus in South Africa: Results from the South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1)

Sibusiso Sifunda, Anthony David Mbewu, Musawenkosi Mabaso, Thabang Manyaapelo*, Ronel Sewpaul, Justin Winston Morgan, Nigel Walsh Harriman, David R. Williams, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In South Africa, there are a limited number of population estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and its association with psychosocial factors. This study investigates the prevalence of diabetes and its psychosocial correlates in both the general South African population and the Black South African subpopulation using data from the SANHANES-1. Diabetes was defined as a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5% or currently on diabetes treatment. Multivariate ordinary least squares and logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with HbA1c and diabetes, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher among participants who identified as Indian, followed by White and Coloured people, and lowest among Black South Africans. General population models indicated that being Indian, older aged, having a family history of diabetes, and being overweight and obese were associated with HbA1c and diabetes, and crowding was inversely associated with HbA1c and diabetes. HbA1c was inversely associated with being White, having higher education, and residing in areas with higher levels of neighborhood crime and alcohol use. Diabetes was positively associated with psychological distress. The study highlights the importance of addressing the risk factors of psychological distress, as well as traditional risk factors and social determinants of diabetes, in the prevention and control of diabetes at individual and population levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5798
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume20
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Black South African
  • South Africa
  • diabetes
  • epidemiological transition
  • non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
  • psychological distress
  • psychosocial determinants
  • rural
  • urban

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