OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common contributors of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The epidemiology of CKD, a concern among patients with DM, has not been studied in Botswana. Consequently, the objective of this study was to estimate its prevalence among these patients in Botswana to provide future guidance to both government personnel and physicians.
METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study in a leading clinic in Botswana. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patients through interviews and from their notes using a standard questionnaire. The study was conducted from July to October 2015. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. CKD was defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between CKD and potential factors.
RESULTS: The mean age and duration of DM among study participants were 54.67 years (range 21-92 years) and 5.0 years, respectively. Over half, i.e. 213/370 (57.6%) and 232/370 (62.7%), had an average blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg and poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7%), respectively. 31/370 patients (8.4%) had CKD. However, only 18/370 (4.9%) had a diagnosis of CKD documented in their charts. Age, level of education, and duration of diabetes were independently associated with CKD.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CKD by estimated eGFR was low compared to most previous studies. However, half of patients with CKD are not documented resulting in the potential for prescription errors and drug toxicity. A substantial number of our patients had uncontrolled hypertension and poor glycemic control. Older age, low level of education and longer duration of DM were associated with CKD. There is a need to carry out prospective studies to determine the association and role of glycemic and blood pressure control in CKD causation among patients with DM in Botswana.
- Diabetes mellitus
- chronic kidney disease
- glomerular filtration rate