Prevalence of osteoporosis and factors associated with bone density in HIV-positive kidney transplant candidates and recipients from an HIV-positive donor

C. J. Martin*, T. Gwetu, D. Labadarios, E. Muller, F. J. Veldman, C. Ellis, S. M. Kassier

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Studies show a high prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture risk in kidney transplant candidates and recipients. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among transplant recipients and candidates living with HIV. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis and investigate the socio-demographic and nutritional factors associated with BMD in HIV-positive transplant candidates and recipients from an HIV-positive donor. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 20 HIV- positive transplant recipients and 36 transplant candidates on haemodialysis (HD) and awaiting transplantation had BMD and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Vitamin D status was measured using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Dietary Vitamin D and calcium intake was obtained from a single 24-hour recall. Results: Participants were mainly black African (92.9%), male (55.4%) with a mean age of 43.8 ± 8.3 years. Serum 25(OH)D levels were low for the group as a whole, with a mean of 22.04 ± 12.74 ng/ml. Osteoporosis was more prevalent amongst transplant recipients (20.0%) than transplant candidates (13.9%). Conversely, osteopenia was present amongst transplant candidates (27.8%). T-scores strongly correlated positively, with lean mass and BMD of the spine (r = 0.707, p = 0.007), and moderately, with each side of the total hip BMD (r = 0.455, p = 0.007 and r = 0.420, p = 0.007). There was a significant positive association between dietary calcium and all BMD sites in transplant recipients only. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoporosis was similar, and in some cases, lower than in transplant recipients elsewhere. Lean mass was positively associated with BMD, and in transplant recipients, dietary calcium intake was positively associated with BMD emphasising the role of diet and exercise in preserving BMD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSouth African Journal of Clinical Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Renal transplant
  • calcium
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • osteoporosis
  • vitamin D

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