Purpose: To discuss the terminology, etiopathogenesis, and treatment of radiolucent inflammatory implant periapical lesions.
Materials and Methods: An electronic search for relevant articles published in the English literature in the PubMed database.
Results: Bacterial contamination of the apical portion of the implant either from a preexisting dental periapical infection or from a periapical lesion of endodontic origin of an adjacent tooth is the probable causative factor. Aseptic bone necrosis owing to overheating of the bone during preparation of osteotomies, or compression of the bone at the apex of the implant owing to excessive tightening, may also play a role. The histopathological features are of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate on a background of granulation tissue consistent with either a granuloma or an abscess as may be found at the apex of a nonvital tooth. Treatment consists of immediate and aggressive surgical debridement, chemical detoxification of the apical portion of the exposed implant surface, and systemic antibiotics with or without a bone regenerative procedure.
Conclusion: A radiolucent inflammatory implant periapical lesion is analogous to either a granuloma or an abscess as may be found at the apex of a nonvital tooth.
- Apical periimplantitis
- Bone compression
- Implant periapical granuloma
- Overheating of bone
- Retrograde periimplantitis