Room Temperature Ammonia Gas Sensing Using Polyaniline/Indium Oxide/Onion-Like Carbon Composite

Boipelo N. Mathe, Clinton M. Masemola, John Moma, Zikhona N. Tetana, Ella C. Linganiso*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


The modification of onion-like carbons (OLCs) and conducting polymer composites with semiconductor metal oxides could enhance sensing performance at room temperature. The present study compared two microwave-assisted solution-phase methods for the synthesis of indium oxides. The first method produced indium hydroxide $(\text{In} (\text{OH})_{3})$ followed by its conversion to $\text{In}2O3 through annealing at 400 $^{\circ}{C}}$, and the second method used a one-step method where ethanol was used as a solvent instead of water. A flexible room temperature ammonia $(\text{NH3})$ gas sensor was developed using a sensing layer composed of indium oxide $(\text{In2}O3})$ /OLCs)/polyaniline (PANI) composite at relative humidity of 45%. The results showed that $\text{In2}O3 materials can be successfully applied in room temperature gas sensing and further enhance the sensing response of OLC/PANI composite.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2023 IEEE SENSORS, SENSORS 2023 - Conference Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9798350303872
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes
Event2023 IEEE SENSORS, SENSORS 2023 - Vienna, Austria
Duration: 29 Oct 20231 Nov 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of IEEE Sensors
ISSN (Print)1930-0395
ISSN (Electronic)2168-9229


Conference2023 IEEE SENSORS, SENSORS 2023


  • ammonia gas sensing
  • composites
  • indium oxide
  • onion-like carbons
  • polyaniline


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