Importance: Rotavirus infection is the global leading cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years. Objectives: To examine the extent of rotavirus infection among children younger than 5 years by country and the number of deaths averted because of the rotavirus vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: This report builds on findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, a cross-sectional study that measured diarrheal diseases and their etiologic agents. Models were used to estimate burden in data-sparse locations. Exposure: Diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rotavirus-associated mortality and morbidity by country and year and averted deaths attributable to the rotavirus vaccine by country. Results: Rotavirus infection was responsible for an estimated 128500 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 104500-155600) among children younger than 5 years throughout the world in 2016, with 104733 deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (95% UI, 83406-128842). Rotavirus infection was responsible for more than 258 million episodes of diarrhea among children younger than 5 years in 2016 (95% UI, 193 million to 341 million), an incidence of 0.42 cases per child-year (95% UI, 0.30-0.53). Vaccine use is estimated to have averted more than 28000 deaths (95% UI, 14600-46700) among children younger than 5 years, and expanded use of the rotavirus vaccine, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, could have prevented approximately 20% of all deaths attributable to diarrhea among children younger than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Rotavirus-associated mortality has decreased markedly over time in part because of the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. This study suggests that prioritizing vaccine introduction and interventions to reduce diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality is necessary in the continued global reduction of rotavirus infection..