Salmonella Combination Vaccines: Moving Beyond Typhoid

Calman A. MacLennan, Jeffrey Stanaway, Stephanie Grow, Kirsten Vannice, A. Duncan Steele*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


There is now a robust pipeline of licensed and World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccines with a steady progression of national introductions. However, typhoid fever is responsible for less than half the total global burden of Salmonella disease, and even less among children aged <5 years. Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease is the dominant clinical presentation of Salmonella in Africa, and over a quarter of enteric fever in Asia is due to paratyphoid A. In this article, we explore the case for combination Salmonella vaccines, review the current pipeline of these vaccines, and discuss key considerations for their development, including geographies of use, age of administration, and pathways to licensure. While a trivalent typhoid/nontyphoidal Salmonella vaccine is attractive for Africa, and a bivalent enteric fever vaccine for Asia, a quadrivalent vaccine covering the 4 main disease-causing serovars of Salmonella enterica would provide a single vaccine option for global Salmonella coverage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S58-S66
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Salmonella
  • nontyphoidal
  • paratyphoid
  • typhoid
  • vaccines


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