Socio-demographic and clinical determinants of late presentation among patients newly diagnosed with HIV in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Olufunso O. Sogbanmu, Daniel T. Goon, Larry C. Obi, Benson Chucks Iweriebor, Uchechukwu N. Nwodo, Anthony I. Ajayi, Anthony I. Okoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


South Africa recently implemented the 'test and treat' strategy for all HIV-infected individuals receiving diagnosis at the health facility level. However, the impact of this programme in terms of the prevention of HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with HIV can only be maximized if patients are diagnosed early. This study determines the prevalence of late presentation among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals and also examines the socio-demographic and clinical determinants for late presentation in health facilities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 335 newly diagnosed patients were recruited consecutively between August 2016 and July 2017. Late presenter for HIV care was defined in accordance with the European Late Presenter Consensus working group as a patient who reports for care when the CD4 count is below 350 cells/μL and/or when there is an established AIDS-defining clinical condition, irrespective of CD4 count. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of late HIV diagnosis.Participants' mean age was 33.6 (SD: 10.6). Almost 96% of the participants believed their route of HIV infection was heterosexual sex. Most newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients (60%) were late presenters (CD4+ count ≤350 cells/μL and/or having an AIDS-defining illness in World Health Organisation (WHO)-defined stage III/IV), with 35% presenting with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related complications. In the adjusted model, only male sex (AOR: 2.81; CI: 1.51-5.23), no formal education (AOR: 5.63; CI: 1.68-18.85), and overweight body mass category (AOR: 2.45; CI: 1.04-5.75) were independently associated with late HIV diagnosis.The majority of newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals were late presenters. To maximize the impact of the 'test and treat' policy aimed at reducing new HIV transmissions and preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV, there is a need for programmes to improve early detection of HIV in the study settings. This programme should target males and individuals with no formal education for maximum impact.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e14664
Number of pages1
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Socio-demographic and clinical determinants of late presentation among patients newly diagnosed with HIV in the Eastern Cape, South Africa'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this