Biomass is considered one of the prospective alternatives to energy and environmental challenges. The use of biomass as bioenergy has gained global interest due to its environmentally benign, renewable, and abundant characteristics. Numerous conversion technologies have been developed over time to convert biomass into various energy products. This review presents a summary of the different biomass conversion technologies used for bioenergy production. These include thermochemical, biological, physical, biochemical, and hybrid system technologies. It summarizes the production of different bioenergy products such as bio-oil, biodiesel, and fuel via various conversion technologies. The competitive advantages, potential environmental impacts, and challenges of these biomass conversion technologies are discussed. The recycling of biomass can solve a lot of current energy challenges. However, conversion technologies exhibit some challenges relative to upscaling and commercialization due to their immense operational and investment expenses and high energy usage.
- conversion technology