Trace metals concentrations in fresh milk from dairy farms and stores: An assessment of human health risk.

J. O. Olowoyo*, M. L. Mutemula, O. O. Agboola, L. L. Mugivhisa, O. O. Olatunji, O. M. Oladeji*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Milk may be consumed daily for the supply of essential nutrients in the body, however, depending on the source, milk may contain different concentrations of trace metals. The present study investigated the presence of trace metals in fresh milk purchased from different dairy farms and stores to determine the possible health risks to humans. A total of 15 fresh milk samples were purchased from various dairy farms (7 fresh milk samples) and stores (8 milk samples). Trace metals in collected milk samples were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The human health risk was determined through the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Risk. The results showed the presence of trace metals in fresh milk stores in the following order Pb>As>Se>Cr>Ni. The highest concentration for all the elements was recorded in Mg from milk purchased from the stores and ranged from 3.37±0.16 mg/L to 4.70±0.43 mg/L. In all the milk samples analyzed, levels of As, Pb, Se, Cr, and other elements were within the acceptable range recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Differences obtained in the concentrations of trace metals from both the purchased milk samples and those from the dairy farms were not significant (p<0.05). The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) and Hazard Quotient Index showed no potential health risk for each trace metal indicating no health risk for the milk consumers at this stage. The traces of trace metals in the milk samples suggest the need for regular monitoring of trace metals in milk samples because prolonged exposure to these trace metals may seriously endanger the health of consumers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-368
Number of pages8
JournalToxicology Reports
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Estimated Health Risks
  • Hazard Quotient
  • Milk
  • Trace Metals


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