Uncontrolled Hypertension, Treatment, and Predictors among Hypertensive Out-Patients Attending Primary Health Facilities in Johannesburg, South Africa

Amaziah Makukule, Perpetua Modjadji*, Ntevhe Thovhogi, Kabelo Mokgalaboni, Andre Pascal Kengne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hypertension is a poorly controlled risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Africa, particularly among patients receiving care in the public sector who are mostly from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This cross-sectional study investigated uncontrolled hypertension, treatment, and predictors among hypertensive out-patients attending primary health care facilities in Johannesburg, South Africa. The WHO STEPwise approach to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases was used to collect data, including sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and measurements for anthropometry and blood pressure along with self-reported adherence to treatment, estimated through the general medication adherence scale. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg in diagnosed patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index ≥25 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to assess the predictors of uncontrolled hypertension. Four hundred (n = 400) hypertensive out-patients (mean age: 50 ± 8 years) participated in this study, with most living in poor sociodemographic environments. The prevalence rate of uncontrolled hypertension was 57%. Obesity (62% vs. 42%, p ≤ 0.0001), salt consumption (90% vs. 55%, p ≤ 0.0001), alcohol intake (42% vs. 19%, p ≤ 0.0001), a smoking habit (23% vs. 4%, p ≤ 0.0001), alternative medicine use (51% vs. 40%, p = 0.043), and comorbidities (64% vs. 36%, p ≤ 0.0001) were higher in the uncontrolled group than the controlled group, whereas the prevalence of physical activity (38% vs. 15%, p ≤ 0.0001) was high in the controlled group vs. the uncontrolled. Overall, 85% of the patients moderately adhered to treatment, only 2% exhibited high adherence, and 13% demonstrated low adherence; over half of the patients received tri-therapy treatment. The predictors of uncontrolled hypertension are a number of prescribed antihypertensive therapies [adjusted odds ration = 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.48–3.87], treatment adherence [0.46; 0.21–0.97], salt consumption [28.35; 7.87–102.04], physical activity [0.22; 0.13–0.37], current alcohol use [2.10; 1.22–3.61], and current cigarette smoking [4.79; 1.88–12.18]. The high prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension in this study suggests a need to optimize prescriptions, adherence to BP-lowering medications, and lifestyle modifications. The management of comorbidities such as diabetes could offer considerable benefits in controlling blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2783
JournalHealthcare (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • South Africa
  • out-patients
  • predictors
  • primary health care facilities
  • treatment
  • uncontrolled hypertension

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