© 2016. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have greatly increased the concentrations of trace metals as pollutants in the urban environment. These pollutants (trace metals) are more likely to have an adverse effect on peri-urban agriculture which is now becoming a permanent feature of the landscape of many urban cities in the world. This review reports on the concentrations of trace metals in crops, including leafy vegetables harvested from different urban areas, thus highlighting the presence of trace metals in leafy vegetables. Various pathways of uptake of trace metals by leafy vegetables, such as the foliar and roots, and possible health risks associated with urban faming are discussed and various morphological and physiological impacts of trace metals in leafy vegetables are described. Defensive mechanisms and positive aspects of trace metals in plants are also highlighted.
- Human health