Background: Previous studies in our laboratory in ex vivo assays have demonstrated H. hemerocallidea extract as potential antidiabetic agent through increased insulin release from pancreatic beta cells. Thus, for this study the early stage type II spontaneous diabetic mutant mice model was used to evaluate and determine the degree of the antidiabetic efficacy of H. hemerocallidea. Methods: Eight-weeks-old type II spontaneous pre-diabetic mutant BKS-Leprdb mice were fed with feed supplemented with either H. hemerocallidea extract, isolated compound (β-sitosterol) or chlorpropamide (positive control) for 4 weeks. The haematological parameters, clinical chemistry, glucose tolerance, feed intake, faecal output and body weights were measured. Results: The blood glucose concentrations of all the animals treated with plant extract, β-sitosterol compound and non-treated pre-diabetic animals did not return to baseline levels. Only the β-sitosterol treatment and positive control groups resulted in a respective small decrease of 5.8 and 5.2% in the mouse weights over the study period, with no significant changes (p > 0.05) in food intake. However, there was a general trend for decrease in faecal output for all the groups. Albumin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in β-sitosterol and chlorpropamide-treated animals were lower, relative to untreated-animals. Animals fed with plant extract showed large amounts of internal fat. There were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in total serum protein, globulin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen and creatinine attributed to administration of treatments. In all groups, some animals showed lesions associated with cardiac puncture. Few animals except animals treated with plant extract, showed presence of a left-ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The liver and kidneys for all groups appeared macroscopically normal and the thymuses were small (±2 mg). There were pathological signs in some of the animals particularly in myocardial fibres, renal tubular, glomerular, hepatocyte granularity and pancreas islets. However, there was no significance trend between the groups. Conclusion: Based on the results, none of the treatments could be considered highly effective for the management of type II pre-diabetes as sole therapeutic intervention.
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
- Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
- Plant Extracts/chemistry
- Prediabetic State/drug therapy