Objectives Vesicular drug delivery has become a useful approach for therapeutic administration of pharmaceutical compounds. Lipid vesicles have found application in membrane biology, immunology, genetic engineering and theragnostics. This review summarizes topical delivery, specifically dermal/transdermal, ocular and transungual, via these vesicles, including future formulation perspectives. Key findings Liposomes and their subsequent derivatives, viz. niosomes, transferosomes, pharmacososmes and ethosomes, form a significant part of vesicular systems that have been successfully utilized in treating an array of topical disorders. These vesicles are thought to be a safe and effective mode of improving the delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. Summary Several drug molecules are available for topical disorders. However, physicochemical properties and undesirable toxicity have limited their efficacy. Vesicular delivery systems have the potential to overcome these shortcomings due to properties such as high biocompatibility, simplicity of surface modification and suitability as controlled delivery vehicles. However, incorporating these systems into environmentally responsive dispersants such as hydrogels, ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents may further enhance therapeutic prowess of these delivery systems. Consequently, improved vesicular drug delivery can be achieved by considering combining some of these formulation approaches.
- topical disorders
- vesicular drug delivery