High mortality rates caused by rotaviruses are associated with several strains such as G2, G8, G9, and G12 rotaviruses. Rotaviruses with G9 and G12 genotypes emerged worldwide in the past two decades. G2 and G8 rotaviruses are however also characterized frequently across Africa. To understand the genetic constellation of African G2, G8, G9, and G12 rotavirus strains and their possible origin, sequence-independent cDNA synthesis, amplification, and 454 ® pyrosequencing of the whole genomes of five human African rotavirus strains were performed. RotaC and phylogenetic analysis were used to assign and confirm the genotypes of the strains. Strains RVA/Human-wt/MWI/1473/2001/G8P, RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/3203WC/2009/G2P, RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/3133WC/2009/G12P, RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/3176WC/2009/G12P, and RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/GR10924/1999/G9P were assigned G8-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, G2-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, G12-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, G12-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, and G9-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotypes, respectively. The detection of both Wa- and DS-1-like genotypes in strain RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/3133WC/2009/G12P and Wa-like, DS-1-like and P genotypes in strain RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/GR10924/1999/G9P implies that these two strains were generated through intergenogroup genome reassortment. The close similarity of the genome segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/MWI/1473/2001/G8P to artiodactyl-like, human-bovine reassortant strains and human rotavirus strains suggests that it originated from or shares a common origin with bovine strains. It is therefore possible that this strain might have emerged through interspecies genome reassortment between human and artiodactyl rotaviruses. This study illustrates the swift characterization of all the 11 rotavirus genome segments by using a single set of universal primers for cDNA synthesis followed by 454 ® pyrosequencing and RotaC analysis.
- 454® pyrosequencing
- Emerging strains